Running SUSHI

Running SUSHI

SUSHI is executed from the command line. The general form of the SUSHI execution command is as follows:

 sushi {specification-directory} {options}

where options include the following (in any order):

-o, --out <out>     the path to the output folder
-d, --debug         output extra debugging information
-p, --preprocessed  output FSH produced by preprocessing steps
-s, --snapshot      generate snapshot in Structure Definition output (default: false)
-i, --init          initialize a SUSHI project
-v, --version       print SUSHI version
-h, --help          output usage information

While SUSHI is running, it will print status messages as it processes your project files. When SUSHI has completed, you should receive a summary like the following:

╔════════════════════════ SUSHI RESULTS ══════════════════════════╗
║ ╭──────────┬────────────┬───────────┬─────────────┬───────────╮ ║
║ │ Profiles │ Extensions │ ValueSets │ CodeSystems │ Instances │ ║
║ ├──────────┼────────────┼───────────┼─────────────┼───────────┤ ║
║ │    1     │     1      │     1     │      1      │     1     │ ║
║ ╰──────────┴────────────┴───────────┴─────────────┴───────────╯ ║
║                                                                 ║
║ O-fish-ally error free!                0 Errors      0 Warnings ║

Error Messages

In the process of developing your IG using FSH, you may encounter SUSHI error messages (written to the command console). Most error messages point to a specific line or lines in a .fsh file. If possible, SUSHI will continue, despite errors, to produce FHIR artifacts, but those artifacts may omit problematic rules. SUSHI should always exit gracefully. If SUSHI crashes, please report the issue using the SUSHI issue tracker.

Here are some general tips for debugging:

  • Parsing (syntax) errors should be fixed first. A single syntax error can ballooon into many other errors, so you should always eliminate syntax errors first. Syntax error messages may include extraneous input {x} expecting {y}, mismatched input {x} expecting {y} and no viable alternative at {x}. These messages indicate that the line in question is not a valid FSH statement.
  • The order of keywords matters. The declarations must start with the type of item you are creating (e.g., Profile, Instance, ValueSet).
  • The order of rules usually doesn’t matter, but there are exceptions. Slices and extensions must be created before they are constrained.
  • Rules must contain valid paths. The No element found at path error means that although the overall grammar of the rule may be correct, SUSHI could not find the FHIR element you are referring to in the rule. Make sure there are no spelling errors, the element names in the path are correct, and you are using the path grammar correctly.
  • The community can help. If you are getting an error you can’t resolve, you can ask for help on the #shorthand chat channel.

SUSHI Outputs

Based on the inputs in FSH files, sushi-config.yaml, and the IG project directory, SUSHI populates the fsh-generated directory. For example, running SUSHI on the customized-ig project from the Project Structure section would add a fsh-generated folder as shown below:

├── fsh-generated
|   └── resources
|       ├── CodeSystem-myCodeSystem.json
|       ├── Patient-myPatient-example.json
|       ├── StructureDefinition-myExtension.json
|       ├── StructureDefinition-myProfile.json
|       ├── ValueSet-myValueSet.json
|       └── ImplementationGuide-myIG.json
├── ig.ini
├── input
|   ├── fsh
│   |   └── (fsh files)
│   ├── ignoreWarnings.txt
│   ├── images
│   │   ├── myDocument.pdf
│   │   ├── myGraphic.png
│   │   └── mySpreadsheet.xlsx
│   ├── includes
│   │   └── menu.xml
│   ├── pagecontent
│   │   ├──
│   │   ├──
│   │   ├──
│   │   └──
├── package-list.json
└── sushi-config.json

SUSHI creates only the fsh-generated folder, but some of the files shown above are either processed by SUSHI to create the ImplementationGuide.json file, or can be generated by SUSHI if the author wishes. See the breakdown of files and directories below:

  • fsh-generated*: Generated from the definitions in the input/fsh/*.fsh files.
  • ig.ini: Specified by the author and unchanged by SUSHI.
  • input/ignoreWarnings.txt: Specified by the author and unchanged by SUSHI.
  • input/images/*: Specified by the author and unchanged by SUSHI.
  • input/includes/menu.xml: Specified by the author and unchanged by SUSHI, but can alternately be specified via the menu property in sushi-config.yaml. If the menu configuration property is used, the output is generated to fsh-generated/includes/menu.xml.
  • input/pagecontent/*: Specified by the author, numeric prefixes are used by SUSHI in generating the ImplementationGuide-myIG.json file.
  • package-list.json: Specified by the author and unchanged by SUSHI.

Downloading the IG Publisher Scripts

To run the IG Publisher, we recommend downloading the _updatePublisher.bat|sh and _genonce.bat|sh scripts provided by the sample-ig project. To get these scripts, download the sample-ig project, unzip it, and copy all of the .bat and .sh files to the directory above the fsh-generated directory (customized-ig in the example above).

Downloading the IG Publisher

After copying these, change directories in the command prompt to the directory above the fsh-generated directory. At the command prompt, enter:


This will download the latest version of the HL7 FHIR IG Publisher tool into the /input-cache directory. This step can be skipped if you already have the latest version of the IG Publisher tool in input-cache.

Running the IG Publisher

After the IG Publisher has been successfully downloaded, execute the following command to run it:


This will run the HL7 IG Publisher, which may take several minutes to complete. After the publisher is finished, open the file /output/index.html in a browser to see the resulting IG.

Preprocessed FSH

When running SUSHI, the -p or --preprocessed flag can be used to to create a _preprocessed folder in SUSHI’s output folder (customized-ig/_preprocessed in the example above). This folder will contain representations of the input FSH after several preprocessing steps have taken place. These steps include resolution of Alias values, insertion of RuleSet rules, and resolution of soft indexing. This is mainly provided as a debugging tool, for the author to verify that SUSHI is preprocessing the input FSH in an expected way, and to help trace errors in the output of SUSHI back to their source. For example, if the IG Publisher reports an error on element Bundle.entry[56].resource, it may be difficult to identify the problematic entry in your FSH source if you used soft-indexing. It is much easier, however, to identify the problematic element in the preprocessed FSH that contains explicit indices.

The example below shows a FSH snippet and a preprocessed version of that snippet. In this snippet, a Profile is defined using a RuleSet and an Alias, and below an Instance is defined which uses soft indexing.

Alias: CAT =

Profile: ObservationProfile
Parent: Observation
* insert Metadata
* category from CAT (required)

RuleSet: Metadata
* ^version = "1.2.3"
* ^publisher = "Example publisher"

Instance: PatientInstance
InstanceOf: Patient
* name.given[+] = "John"
* name.given[+] = "Q"

The preprocessed version of the above FSH is shown below. The CAT alias has been resolved to its full URL, the rules contained in the RuleSet have been inserted onto the ObservationProfile, and the RuleSet itself has been removed, and the rules on the PatientInstance have been resolved to fully specified paths, which do not use soft indexing.

Alias: CAT =

// Originally defined on lines 3 - 6
Profile: ObservationProfile
Parent: Observation
Id: ObservationProfile
* ^version = "1.2.3"
* ^publisher = "Example publisher"
* category from (required)

// Originally defined on lines 12 - 15
Instance: PatientInstance
InstanceOf: Patient
Usage: #example
* name.given[0] = "John"
* name.given[1] = "Q"

Last modified June 4, 2021: Updates for SUSHI 2.0 (#42) (90ac444)